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  • Driti Gundana

The Sun

The Sun is a 4.6-billion-year-old star, but due to the prolonged timeline of our universe, the Sun is considered a middle-aged star, which will continue to radiate light for the next 4 billion years. This dazzling and bright star is the glue that holds our Solar System together. It provides the energy required by Earth to sustain life. The Sun is composed of 92.1% of Hydrogen, 7.8% Helium, and 0.1% of elements like – Lead, Uranium, Iron, and carbon. The Sun is so huge that it makes up 99% of the Solar System, while the rest consists of planets, asteroids, moons, comets, and dust.

A million Earths could fit into the star, but it is still considered average-sized. Some stars are even 400 times larger than the Sun. The Sun, like most stars, is an enormous ball of Hydrogen gas blistering heat and light through the procedure of nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is the opposite of nuclear fission, in the former the atoms are bumped right together, but in the latter, the atoms are split apart to create deadly radiation. The sun converts about 4 million tons of matter into energy every second through fusion.

Just like how the planets of the Solar System revolve around the Sun, it too revolves around its galaxy, the Milky Way. Our star system is positioned halfway out in one of the arms of the Milky Way. The Sun takes 225-250 million years to complete one revolution around the galaxy.

When seen from outer space our Sun scorches white. However, from Earth, due to the complexity of the atmosphere, it appears as a yellow coloured star.

The Sun is a much more complex structure than just a massive, shining ball of Hydrogen and Helium. A prominent detail of the star of the Solar System is the Sun Spots, these spots lack a definite shape and look like blotches, and are to some extent cooler than the rest of the star. The surface of the Sun averages about 5000ºC, and the Sunspots average about 3300ºC. These spots throw out loops and prominences of superhot gas. These prominences follow invisible magnetic lines that connect the Sun Spots. The loops extend for hundreds of miles above the visible surface of the Sun. These cosmic explosions erupt from the Sun’s surface into outer space. These explosions end up creating magnificent auroras on Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and even Uranus and Neptune.


  1. YouTube. "NASA | Fiery Looping Rain on the Sun." YouTube. 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2022. <>

  2. YouTube. "Sun 101 | National Geographic." YouTube. 5 Jan. 2018. Web. 25 Apr. 2022. <>

  3. YouTube. "NASA Parker Solar Probe - Journey To The Sun." YouTube. 14 Aug. 2018. Web. 25 Apr. 2022. <>

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